< Back to Webinar/Webtorial list

Reflow Soldering Process and Influence on Defects - An In-Depth Look

Presenter: Dr. S. Manian Ramkumar
Company: Rochester Institute of Technology
Date Published: 12/10/2013

Description: S. Manian Ramkumar Ph.D. Presented by: S. Manian Ramkumar Ph.D., Rochester Institute of Technology

Note: The price listed reflects a $50 discount as 30 minutes of the presentation detailing the reflow profile process were accidentally not recorded during the live event but are included in the slides.

The reflow soldering process is a key process in surface mount electronics assembly after stencil printing process. The soldering parameters influence the quality of the solder joint in a surface mount PCB assembly. This course will provide a thorough understanding of the reflow process for tin-lead and lead free soldering. Topics include an in-depth look at the various soldering methods, mechanism for solder joint formation, intermetallic formation, reflow parameters, effect of reflow parameters, thermocouple attachment and profiling, importance of profiling, defect identification and corrective action. Participants in this course are sure to acquire a sound understanding of the soldering process and its influence on assembly yield.


  • Introduction to soldering
  • Soldering terminology a. Surface Tension b. Wetting c. Capillary Action d. Wetting Angle
  • Intermetallic compounds and its formation
  • Heating methods for soldering a. Conduction b. Convection c. Infrared Radiation
  • Different soldering techniques
  • Reflow soldering specifications
  • Phase diagrams and their analysis
  • Reflow Process requirements
  • Features of reflow equipment
  • Reflow zones and profile parameters
  • Comparison between the Sn-Pb and Pb-free reflow process
  • Types of reflow profile a. Ramp-Soak-Spike b. Ramp-to-spike or Straight c. Shoulder d. Flat Head
  • Reflow profile band and its use
  • Procedure to generate reflow profile
  • Oven setting parameters
  • Procedure of thermocouple attachment
  • Issues affecting Pb-free reflow
  • Reflow process issues
  • Nitrogen inerting and its need
  • Critical parameters for reflow
  • Reflow profile elements and associated defects

    Who should attend?

  • Process, Design, Test and Quality Engineers
  • Process and Quality Technicians
  • Operators
  • Managers

    Dr. Ramkumar is a Professor and Chair of the Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering Technology Department at the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT). He is also the Director for the Center for Electronics Manufacturing & Assembly (CEMA). He teaches courses in surface mount electronics packaging and manufacturing automation. He was instrumental in developing the Electronics Packaging Center and the Automation laboratories at RIT. The Center supports hands-on training and applied research projects for industry. Dr. Ramkumar has been the principal investigator for several applied research projects and has presented technical papers at the SMTA, APEX, IMAPS, ASME and IEEE conferences. He also teaches Surface Mount Technology (SMT) and Advanced Packaging courses at the IPC-APEX and SMTA shows and for companies on-site. His current research is in the use of a novel magnetically aligned ACA as a lead-free replacement with PCB assembly and 3D packaging.

  • Key Words: 

    Reflow Soldering, Defects,

      Members: $150.00 (Log on to receive the member rate)
      Non-Members: $250.00

    Want to download articles for free? Join SMTA today!


    SMTA Headquarters
    6600 City West Parkway, Suite 300
    Eden Prairie, MN 55344 USA

    Phone +1 952.920.7682
    Fax +1 952.926.1819