SMTA International Conference Proceedings

Packaging Technologies for Advanced Automotive Applications

Authors: Andrew Mawer, Burt Carpenter and Mollie Benson
Company: NXP Semiconductors
Date Published: 9/22/2019   Conference: SMTA International

Abstract: Starting with analog integrated circuits (IC's) for in-car radios and then electronically controlled fuel injection (EFI), semiconductors were first implemented in automotive electronics starting the late 1960's [1-4]. During the 1970's there was a rapid adoption of semiconductors for not only radios, engine and transmission control, but also for other applications such as wipers, electronic locks, and dashboard functions. Fast forward to now and almost all aspects of the vehicle extensively utilize integrated circuits. Some of these applications are shown in Figure 1 and include but are not limited to radar, engine / hybrid / electric vehicle / transmission control, infotainment, audio, cameras, GPS, telematics, V2X (vehicle to X communications where X is other vehicles, infrastructure, pedestrians, etc..), night vision, collision avoidance, tire pressure monitoring system (TPMS), in-vehicle network, vehicle stability (ABS / traction control / rollover). The use of semiconductors in the auto industry will undoubtedly grow as new applications develop. Each year the percentage of the vehicle value that is represented by semiconductors increases and the automotive market segment accounts for as much as 10% of worldwide semiconductor revenue [5].

Supplying into the automotive segment is typified by the demand for perfect quality which includes delivery, documentation and software, ability to withstand severe environments, just in time delivery requirements, immediate containment and rapid corrective action for issues that arise, and stringent industry standards for qualification and functional safety (ISO 26262 and IEC 61508) to name a few [6-7]. For these reasons, it takes a substantial commitment for semiconductor suppliers to enter the automotive IC market space.

With the advent of autonomous (i.e., self-driving) vehicles and the accompanying massive computing power and bandwidths necessary, the demand for more IC content in vehicles is only going to continue to increase. These high performance IC's will require even more advanced packaging solutions including high pin count flip chip , SiP's, (i.e., System in Package) utilizing various interconnect technologies, Wafer Level Chip Scale Package (WL-CSP), Fan-Out Wafer Level Package (FO-WLP) and BGAs of higher pin count and finer pitch than is used today. This paper will initially take a look back at the history of automotive semiconductor packaging and then proceed to address some current and future applications. Various package technology trends will be reviewed. Also, the basic reliability requirements for these automotive grade packages, both at the component level and the board level, for automotive, will be outlined. Finally, some of the megatrends driving changes in automotive electronics, and therefore packaging, will be outlined.

Key Words: 

automotive electronics, fatigue resistant solder, automotive radar, board level reliability, drop testing, monotonic bend testing, flip chip, ball grid array, BGA, copper wire, Automotive Electronics Council, Q100 specification, electronics packaging, edge bond, underfill, QFN, TPMS, powertrain, FO-WLP, WL-CSP.

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