ICSR (Soldering and Reliability) Conference Proceedings


2D and 3D (CT) X-Ray Inspection Advances for Void Analysis in Electronics

Author: David Bernard
Company: David Bernard Consultancy
Date Published: 6/5/2018   Conference: ICSR (Soldering and Reliability)


Abstract: The presence of voids within the interfacial layers of electronics, either onto the board or within the device, has always been of concern to those charged with making good product. Specifically, voiding may impact on long, and short, term joint strength and reliability as well as affect the thermal conductivity which would otherwise allow heat to be safely dissipated away from key areas. Today, these issues become increasingly more important as more electronics need to withstand harsher operating environments and devices themselves need to be able to handle greater power.

X-ray inspection has long been used to non-destructively probe for these issues, both in R&D and in production. This often enables the root cause of issues to be quickly investigated without the need to cut or destroy the sample, an act which may otherwise potentially mask the real situation. The presence, quantity and location of voids can be clearly seen and measured in the X-ray results. This paper will explain the recent developments that have been made in 2D, 2.5D and 3D X-ray inspection and how they can be applied to electronics. The developments to be discussed will include the use of limited angle computer tomography (CT), sometimes also called laminography, as well as the use of new ‘full CT’ algorithms, such as helical CT, which improve the clarity of the necessary analysis and clearly locate the source of potential voiding and joint / interfacial problems. IGBTs will be used as an example of how these techniques are needed to provide the necessary analysis to clearly locate the source of potential voiding problems.

Key Words: 

X-ray, CT, PCT, Void, Helical, Inspection



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