Multiscale Models for Electroplating of Through Silicon Vias
Authors: K. H. Khoo, Lai MingRui, H. Ramanarayan, J. Hongmei, S. Wu, C. A. Joshi, K. R. Mangipudi, J. J. Cheng, S. S. Quek, D. T. Wu, N. Sridhar, M. S. Bharathi Company: Institute of High Performance Computing, National University of Singapore, Indian Institute of Technology, Institute of Materials Research and Engineering Date Published: 10/23/2018
IWLPC (Wafer-Level Packaging)
Abstract: We present multi-scale models providing guidelines for defect free growth of filling of through silicon vias (TSV) by electroplating. Using first-principles calculations, we understand the chemistry of the electroplating process. We use density functional theory calculations to identify the reaction mechanisms and calculate the reaction energies of the different additives i.e., chloride ion, suppressor, and accelerator in the plating solution. We also present a kinetic Monte Carlo model that can incorporate the chemical and transport properties of the ions and additives during the electroplating. We demonstrate the role of aspect ratio and attachment rates on defect-free bottom-up filling. These multiscale tools can provide the inputs for a continuum phase field model to predict the microstructure during TSV filling (not reported here).
Through silicon via, multiscale modelling, DFT calculations, kinetic Monte Carlo