Soldering is the primary interconnection technology for area array packages. Methods for solder bumping for area array packages can be categorized as follows: (1) build-up process, (2) liquid solder transfer, (3) solid solder transfer, and (4) solder paste bumping. The first group includes both evaporation and electroplating processes, while the second group includes meniscus bumping and solder jetting. The third group includes wire bumping, sphere welding, decal solder transfer, tacky dot solder transfer, integrated preform, and pick-and-place solder transfer processes, with the last one (pick & place solder transfer) being the current prevailing option. Solder paste bumping exhibits great potential to reduce bumping costs dramatically, and includes the print-detach-reflow, print-reflow-detach, and dispense approaches. For an area array package attachment process, depending on the type of packaging, either flux, fluxless soldering or solder paste printing may be used as the attachment medium. Although area array packaging generally offers a robust process, attention should be paid to reduce defects such as delamination, misalignment, elongated joint, voiding, bridging, opens, cracking, poor wetting and various attachment interactions.
Key words: solder, soldering, area array package, flip chip, BGA, CSP, sphere, bumping, paste, flux, fluxless.