IWLPC (Wafer-Level Packaging) Conference Proceedings


ELECTROPLATED COPPER AND COPPER ALLOYS FOR WAFER LEVEL PACKAGING

Authors: Igor S. Zavarine, Xuan Lin, Chonglun Fan and Yun Z
Company: Enthone - Cookson Electronics
Date Published: 11/3/2005   Conference: IWLPC (Wafer-Level Packaging)


Abstract: Pure copper and its alloys have been extensively used in semiconductor industry in the last few decades. However, only recently has electroplated pure copper emerged as a potential replacement of currently used lead-tin alloys in flip chip applications. Copper and copper alloys are also touted as a material of choice for some relatively new applications such as 3D stacking. Electroplated copper has a number of advantages over lead-tin such as lower pitch capability, superior electrical and thermal conductivity, electromigration resistance, wide availability of commercial electroplating baths and well understood electrochemistry.

A number of electroplated copper and copper alloys technologies and their application will be compared. Strengths and limitations of different processes as well as criteria for process selections will be presented. Effects of process parameters such as component concentrations, waveform shape, agitation, and surface preparation on bulk properties and surface topologies and ways to manipulate them will be discussed.



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