Journal of SMT Article


Author: Arni Kujala
Company: Nokia Mobile Phones
Date Published: 4/1/2002   Volume: 15-2

Abstract: Land grid array (LGA) IC-packages are gaining in popularity among portable electronics. Of the many drivers for LGA technology implementation, mechanical reliability is seen as one of the most important. Among the major advantages in LGA packages are direct Pb-free assembly process compatibility and the components' low profile on PWB. Therefore, LGA technology can be considered as an excellent choice to fulfil future environmental requirements in thin and compact products. Although assembly of LGA packages appears to be straight forward, the implementation of LGAs into volume production presents many challenges. The largest challenges are in the assembly process control, which naturally has a contribution to the performance in reliability.

In this study, LGA packaging technology is discussed from the volume production point of view. Moreover, many aspects relating to LGA processing are presented and some of the design parameters critical for volume production are described. The reliability of various LGA packages, with both flip chip (FC) and wire bond (WB) first level interconnections, is evaluated using thermal cycling and board level drop tests designed for a portable use environment. Several quality factors in LGA packages and in second level solder joints are brought out. Furthermore, failure modes related to quality and fatigue life performance are described and discussed.

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